Secrets of Fertilizer

What Is Fertilizer Made Of?

Plants also have three main “food groups“, or rather “macro nutrients“, the three elements that make up the bulk of a fertilizer: NPK.

You may have seen those letters on fertilizer bags. They stand for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (kalium in other languages, hence the chemical symbol K).

Plants need a lot of that stuff. NPK needs to be available to the plant in the right ratio, just like we need a good balance of carbohydrates, protein and fats. (We’re not looking at the latest fad diet, we are talking about a balanced diet here, ok?)

Now, many people grow plants in the belief that all they need to give them is water and fertilizer. Water and NPK, at a correct ratio.

That would be the same as bringing up your kids on instant meals or meal replacement shakes that contain nothing but powdered protein, carbohydrates and fat, in the correct ratio.

Do you think your kids will grow strong and healthy, with a good immune system, if you feed them just that? Neither do I.

History of trade of the People’s Republic of China

History of trade of the People’s Republic of China

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Agricultural products were distributed in three major ways in China during the 1980s. They were either retained by the household (now the primary production unit) for distribution among its members, procured by the state, or sold in rural or urban free markets.

Approximately 63 percent of the population was located in rural areas, where the majority of people worked in agriculture and rural industries. Under the responsibility system for agriculture instituted in 1981, the household replaced the production team as the basic production unit. Families contracted with the economic collective to farm a plot of land, delivered a set amount of grain or other produce and the agricultural tax to the state, and paid a fee to the collective. After meeting these obligations, the household was free to retain its surplus produce or sell it on free markets. Restrictions on private plots and household sideline production were lifted, and much of the produce from these was also sold on free markets.

Distribution of food and other agricultural goods to urban consumers, industry and rural areas deficient in food was carried out primarily by the state and secondarily by producers or cooperatives. The state procured agricultural goods by means of taxes in kind and by purchases by state commercial departments (state trading companies) under theMinistry of Commerce. The agricultural tax was not large, falling from 12 percent of the total value of agricultural output in 1952 to 5 percent in 1979.

Restrictions on private business activities were greatly reduc

In 1984 the number of agricultural and sideline products subject to state planning and purchasing quotas was reduced from twenty-nine to ten and included cereal grains, edible oil, cured tobacco, jute, hemp, and pigs. In 1985 the system of state purchasing quotas for agricultural products was abolished. Instead, the state purchased grain and cotton under contract at a set price. Once contracted quotas were met, grain and cotton were sold on the market at floating prices. If market prices fell below the listed state price, the state purchased all available market grain at the state price to protect the interests of producers. Vegetables, pigs, and aquatic products sold to urban, mining, and industrial areas were traded in local markets according to demand. Local commercial departments set the prices of these goods according to quality to protect the interests of urban consumers. All other agricultural goods were sold on the market to the state, to cooperatives, or to other producers.

ed, permitting peasants as well as cooperatives to transport agricultural goods to rural and urban markets. This also allowed a rapid expansion of free markets in the countryside and in cities. The number of wholesale produce markets increased by 450 percent between 1983 and 1986, reaching a total of 1,100 and easing pressure on the state produce distribution network, which had been strained by the burgeoning agricultural production engendered by rural reforms. In 1986 free markets, called “commodity fairs,” amounted to 61,000 nationwide.

Once food was procured and transported to urban areas, it was sold to consumers by state-owned stores and restaurants. In the mid-1980s food items were also available in free markets, where peasants sold their produce, and in privately owned restaurants. As noted previously, the prices of pigs, aquatic products, and vegetables were determined by local authorities according to quality and demand. The prices of other products floated freely on the market. Except for grain, edible oil, and a few other rationed items, food items were in good supply.

Industrial goods used in agricultural production were sold to agricultural units in the 1980s. Local cooperatives or state supply and marketing bureaus sold most agricultural producer goods, including chemical fertilizers and insecticides, to households at set prices. The state also offered preferential prices for agricultural inputs to grain farmers to encourage grain production. Households were permitted to purchase agricultural machinery and vehicles to transport goods to market. In order to ensure that rural units could cover the costs of the increasing quantities of industrial inputs required for higher yields, the government periodically reduced the prices of the industrial goods sold to farmers, while raising the procurement prices for agricultural products. In the mid-1980s, however, the price gap between agricultural and industrial products was widening to the disadvantage of farmers.

Source : wikipedia  

Working of Centrifugal Pumps

Working of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are the most preferred hydraulic pumps used in domestic and industrial world. In this video we will have a conceptual overview of the working of centrifugal pumps.

Impeller – The Heart of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are used to induce flow or raise pressure of a liquid. Its working is simple. At the heart of the system lies impeller. It has a series of curved vanes fitted inside the shroud plates. The impeller is always immersed in the water. When the impeller is made to rotate, it makes the fluid surrounding it also rotate. This imparts centrifugal force to the water particles, and water moves radially out. In Fig.1 this process is illustrated.

Fig.1 The rotating impeller imparts a centrifugal force to the water particles and the water moves radially out

Since the rotational mechanical energy is transferred to the fluid, at the discharge side of the impeller, both the pressure and kinetic energy of the water will rise. At the suction side, water is getting displaced, so a negative pressure will be induced at the eye. Such a low pressure helps to suck fresh water stream into the system again, and this process continues.

Fig.2 Negative pressure created by displacement of water from the eye helps to suckfresh stream of water

From foregoing discussions it is clear that, the negative pressure at the eye of the impeller helps to maintain the flow in the system. If no water is present initially, the negative pressure developed by the rotating air, at the eye will be negligibly small to suck fresh stream of water. As a result the impeller will rotate without sucking and discharging any water content. So the pump should be initially filled with water before starting it. This process is known as priming.

The impeller is fitted inside a casing. As a result the water moves out will be collected inside it, and will move in the same direction of rotation of the impeller, to the discharge nozzle.This is shown in the Fig.3.

Use of the Casing

From the illustrations of the pump so far, one speciality of the casing is clear. It has an increasing area along the flow direction. Such increasing area will help to accommodate newly added water stream, and will also help to reduce the exit flow velocity. Reduction in the flow velocity will result in increase in the static pressure, which is required to overcome the resistance of pumping system.

Impeller Design

As we have discussed earlier impeller is the most vital part of a centrifugal pump. Successful impellers have been developed with many years of analysis and developmental work. Fig.4 shows one of such impeller with its one shroud plate removed for better view of vanes.

These vanes are backward curved. Backward curved vanes have the blade angle less than 90 degree. Backward curved vanes are the most preferred vane type in the industry due to its self stabilizing power consumption characteristics. This means with increase in flow rate power consumption of the pump stabilizes after a limit. Forward and radial blades are less common in the industry. The eye configuration of the impeller shown is state of the art. This vane is extracted from a Kirloskar pump model. Such projecting eye section induces better swirl of flow and guarantees high negative pressure at the suction.

Fig.4 More details of vanes inside the impeller

NPSH – Overcoming the problem of Cavitation

If pressure at the suction side of impeller goes below vapor pressure of the water, a dangerous phenomenon could happen. Water will start to boil forming vapor bubbles. These bubbles will move along with the flow and will break in a high pressure region. Upon breaking the bubbles will send high impulsive shock waves and spoil impeller material overtime. This phenomenon is known as cavitation. More the suction head, lesser should be the pressure at suction side to lift the water. This fact puts a limit to the maximum suction head a pump can have.

Fig.5 Low pressure at the suction side can cause cavitation; More the suction head,lesser is the suction pressure required

However Cavitation can be completely avoided by careful pump selection. The term NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) helps the designer to choose the right pump which will completely avoid Cavitation. NPSH is defined as follows.

Where Pv is vapor pressure of water
V is speed of water at suction side

For a given pumping system it will have an NPSH called ‘Available NPSH’. Pump manufacturer will specify the minimum NPSH required for each pump for its safe operation, known as ‘Required NPSH’. If the pump needs to work without Cavitation the ‘Available NPSH’ should be greater than ‘Required NPSH’.

Types of Impeller

The impeller type we have used for the discussion so far is called as an enclosed type. Here vanes are closed from both the ends with shroud plates. Other types of impeller which are used in industry are Semi open and open impellers. If the working fluid is cloggy in nature it is preferred to use an open kind of impeller. But they are slightly less efficient.

Fig.6 Kind of impellers used in centrifugal pumps : Enclosed, Semi-Open and Open

Mechanical Design Aspects

The mechanical design of centrifugal pump is always challenging. A shaft is used to connect between the impeller and motor. Since water pressure inside the casing is huge, a proper sealing arrangement is imperative in arresting the water leakage through the shaft casing clearance. Mechanical seal or stuffing box based mechanism is used for this purpose.

Impeller is mounted on the bearings. But at the suction side of impeller it is not advisable to fit a bearing, since it will block the flow. As a result the bearings have to be fitted at the other end. This means impeller is mounted like a cantilever. For high flow rate pumps, a bearing housing with cooling oil is necessary for improving the life of the bearings.

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What are the good ways to generate quality B2B leads…?

how to generate leads Fotor resized 600

Important News: A lot of B2B companies are not generating leads from their websites. While this may be surprising to many in the B2B marketing world, it’s true.

For many B2B companies, lead generation is still rooted in more traditional methods such as referrals, advertising, direct mail and cold calling. The idea of generating leads from a website is less familiar to an enormous swath of the business-to-business world.

Many companies have had successful business momentum and reputations to carry them along for years. But with the economic downturn of recent years and Internet advancements that have changed the way people buy, many firms are struggling to catch up with how best to use their websites to develop new business.

I recently had lunch with a couple of executives with an industrial manufacturing firm. Their company is successful and has even been doing some strategic planning to explore new areas of growth. But they were not familiar with how to generate leads from their website. And they are worried that they might be missing out on a lot of business opportunities.

An effective lead generation program is important in that it allows sales people to spend more time closing business instead of generating opportunities from scratch. Additionally, a lead generation program can turn leads into revenue faster.

The Way People Buy Has Changed

So what’s wrong with just stepping up your cold calling efforts? Well you can do that, but it’s increasingly less effective. The perils of caller ID aside, the way people buy has changed, thanks to the Internet.

In recent years, lead generation has undergone substantial changes brought on in part by new online and social marketing techniques. Specifically, the explosion of information readily available online has led to the ascent of the “self-directed buyer.”

Instead of finding prospects through outbound, interruptive marketing techniques like advertising and cold calling, companies now must focus on getting found online and building relationships with buyers.

In the past, there was less information available for buyers researching a purchase. That information scarcity forced them to interact with the seller early on in the process. At that point, the seller could educate the buyer and influence the buyer’s research and ultimate purchase.

Now in the era of information abundance, buyers are filtering out unwanted noise they don’t want to hear, and are independently researching what they do want to know.

As a result, buyers are overwhelmingly finding their vendors instead of the other way around. This was affirmed in a MarketingSherpa study:

marketing sherpa 2007 study resized 600

This makes your company’s online presence more important than ever. Decision makers and influencers are more likely to find you before you know they are in the market for your product or service.

According to Forrester, buyers can be anywhere from two-thirds to 90% through their purchase before first contacting the seller. That means that buyers can delay talking to sales until they have thoroughly researched their purchase.

So how can a company get themselves inserted into the buyer’s journey long before the buyer wants to speak with them? Here are some the most important tactics:

Use Content Marketing and Blogging

Content is the fuel for all your lead generation efforts. The Content Marketing Institute defines content marketing as “the marketing technique of creating and distributing relevant and valuable content to attract, acquire, and engage a clearly defined and understood target audience—with the objective of driving profitable customer action.”

When properly implemented, content marketing can increase brand awareness and preference, generate social media shares and inbound links, boost search engine optimization (SEO) efforts, and generate quality leads for less than traditional marketing.

But there’s a catch. Your content must demonstrate a deep understanding of your prospects’ and customers’ pain points, and guide them toward solutions. In other words, your content should not be all about you.

The most important ingredient of your content marketing is the strategy. Your content needs to engage prospective buyers. And to do that, you need a plan that reflects your business goals, an understanding ofwhat’s keeping your target audience up at night, content that addresses those concerns, and a content calendar.

Content marketing tip – make your content as visual as possible. Readers are inundated with text. Plus, the human brain processes pictures 60,000 times faster than text.

The centerpiece of your content marketing efforts should be your blog. Each post generates a new ticket in the SEO lottery, enabling you to get found by more prospective customers through organic (non-paid) search.

But remember that blog readers may not want to buy from you right away. Rather than trying to get your blog readers to ask for a product demo, take it slow and try to get them to just subscribe to your blog so you can begin an ongoing relationship.

What Is Bidding ?

Bidding is an offer (often competitive) of setting a price one is willing to pay for something or a demand that something be done.[1] A price offer is called a bid. The term may be used in context of auctions, stock exchange, card games, or real estate. Bidding is used by various economic niche for determining the demand and hence the value of the article or property, in today’s world of advance technology, Internet is one of the most favourite platforms for providing bidding facilities, it is the most natural way of determining the price of a commodity in a free market economy.
Biddings are arranged by first disclosing the time and space location of the place where the bid is to be performed, so that more interested bidders may participate and the most “true” price of the commodity may come out, in terms of bidding on Internet the time frame for posting the bids may be a topic of interest.
Many similar terms that may use or may not use the similar concept have been evolved in the recent past in connection to bidding, such as reverse auction, social bidding, or many other game class ideas that promote them self as bidding. Bidding is also sometimes used as ethical gambling in which the prize money is not determined solely by luck but also by the total demand that the prize has attracted towards itself.
Bidding perform in two ways on online. One is Unique Bidding and another one is Dynamic Bidding.
Unique Bidding: In this bidding users bid for the product, in that bids which one is unique that user will get the product. For Example If A,B,C,D,E users are there who are bidding for the same product. A bid for $5 and B also bid for $5, C and D bid for $2 and E bid for $3 then E got the product, because his bid is unique in those 5 bids.
Dynamic Bidding: Dynamic Bidding is type of bidding where one user can set his bid for the product. At this time if the user present or not for bidding, automatically the bidding will perform up to his defined amount. After reaching his bid value the bidding stops from his side.
Timed bidding auctions allows users to bid at any time during a defined time period, simply by entering a maximum bid. Timed auctions take place without an auctioneer calling the sale so bidders don’t have to wait for a lot to be called. This means that a bidder doesn’t have to keep your eye on a live auction at a specific time.
By entering a maximum bid a user is indicating the highest they’re willing to pay for a lot. An automated bidding service will bid on their behalf to ensure that they meet the reserve price or that they always stay in the lead, up to your maximum bid. If someone else has placed a bid that is higher than the maximum bid, the bidder will be notified, allowing them to change the maximum bid and stay in the auction. At the end of the auction, whoever’s maximum bid is the most wins the lot.
Live bidding is a traditional room-based auction. These can be broadcast via a website where you can hear live audio and see live video feeds. The idea is that a bidder places their bid over the Internet in real-time. Effectively it’s like being at a real auction, in the comfort of the home. Timed bidding on the other hand is a separate auction all together, which allows bidders to participate without the need to see or hear the live event. It’s another way of bidding, that is more convenient to the bidder.
Bidding off the wall or taking bids from the chandelier, as it is sometime known, is where the auctioneer bids on behalf of the vendor.
This is allowed by law in some countries and states and the auctioneer is allowed to bid on behalf of the vendor up to, but not including the reserve price or beyond it. In some cases, this may be extremely helpful for bidders because the reserve needs to be met.
For an example in a property auction supposing the property is coming up for auction and there’s only one person interested in bidding for it in the room. The reserve has been set at #100,000 and this bidder is happy to buy it at #120,000. The bidding starts #80,000 and without the auctioneer bidding on behalf of the vendor, it would never progress beyond that amount. However, because the auctioneer will take bids or generate bids of #85,000, the bidder then goes #90,000 etc. It can end up where the bidder, if he wants to, can bid 100,000 pounds and secure the property on the reserve price.
The result is that the vendor sold the property at reserve and the purchaser has bought the property on the reserve price at less than he was prepared to pay. Without the auctioneer taking bids off the wall, this would never have happened.
All professional auctioneers do it with all types of auction including motor vehicles. As long as they’re pushing it up towards the reserve price then its not an issue. If you don’t want to bid at the price the auctioneer is asking then don’t bid.

Online auction

An online auction is an auction which is held over the internet. Online auctions come in many different formats, but most popularly they are ascending English auctions, descending Dutch auctions, first-price sealed-bid, Vickrey auctions, or sometimes even a combination of multiple auctions, taking elements of one and forging them with another. The scope and reach of these auctions have been propelled by the Internet to a level beyond what the initial purveyors had anticipated. This is mainly because online auctions break down and remove the physical limitations of traditional auctions such as geography, presence, time, space, and a small target audience. This influx in reachability has also made it easier to commit unlawful actions within an auction. In 2002, online auctions were projected to account for 30% of all online e-commerce due to the rapid expansion of the popularity of the form of electronic commerce.

Tomato Ketchup Heats Up with Sriracha

The almost 140-year old Heinz Tomato Ketchup brand is the highest-selling product of H.J. Heinz Co., with approximately 650 million bottles sold every year. A mainstay in most U.S. kitchens and restaurants, today’s evolving taste buds crave new flavors, which is why the brand is getting hot with Heinz Ketchup Blended with Sriracha Flavor.
This twist on the classic maintains the recognizable taste and consistency of “America’s Favorite Ketchup,” with a kick from spicy chili pepper and garlic flavors. The new variety joins the company’s other flavors, which are Tomato Ketchup Blended with Real Jalapeno, Tomato Ketchup Blended with Balsamic Vinegar and Hot & Spicy Ketchup Blended with Tabasco Brand Pepper Sauce. Adding the sriracha flavor makes sense, as according to NPD Group, sriracha sauce is currently found in 16 percent of U.S. households with a homemaker under age 35 and in 9 percent of total households. Now those consumers can get two of their favorite condiments in one. The new flavor comes in the familiar upside-down 14-oz. plastic squeeze bottle featuring a green and red label.
The suggested retail price is $2.69.

BIR Non-Ferrous World Mirror

BIR Non-Ferrous World Mirror

Recent metal price swings have resurrected concerns over whether export contracts will be honoured upon arrival. ‘Many fear a repeat of 2008 when claims and re-pricing negotiations were a daily occurrence,’ one expert has stated. However, the sharp drop in oil prices has provided the bulk of the business headlines during the early stages of 2015. And although many sectors have welcomed the resulting dip in their costs, this is no universal panacea.
In Norway, for example, oil investments are being put on hold while oil companies are seeing reduced margins and employee numbers. And oil’s decline is said to have come ‘at a terrible time’ for Mexico because the country’s government ‘had pinned high hopes on greater revenues and employment from increased production’ whereas now ‘prospects have definitely changed’.
At least the latter country can point to ‘robust’ demand for secondary aluminium on the back of automotive industry growth, although scrap processors are continuing to struggle with below-average post-consumer volumes attributed to ‘slumping prices’ and ‘government over-regulation’.
And the automotive sector continues to be the ‘shining light’ in the USA, where Twitch and Zorba prices have softened but demand remains good. InJapan, seven consecutive months of negative growth in domestic car production have resulted in year-on-year decreases in aluminium alloy demand.
And in China, ADC12 aluminium alloy producers are said to be under pressure from softer domestic demand, lower primary aluminium ingot prices, the weaker Japanese Yen pushing up import costs and additional spot offers fromRussian producers. Meanwhile, in figures that will have global repercussions, the People’s Bank of China has projected that domestic GDP growth will fall from 7.4% in 2014 to 7.1% this year.
Another headline event in early 2015 will be the maiden financial budget of the government elected last year in India. The country’s scrap-related businesses are hoping it will deliver some cheer, particularly as recent LME losses ‘have taken the wind out of the sails of local smelters and processors’.
In particular, bodies including the Metal Recycling Association of India have asked the government to withdraw duties on scrap imports and to correct an inverted structure owing to India’s Free Trade Agreement with ASEAN countries whereby incoming finished goods attract zero duty and yet raw materials are taxed. In South Africa, meanwhile, there are concerns that certain copper scrap dealers are obtaining export permits even though they are being offered a price above the International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) threshold.
‘More illegal exports are taking place as scrap dealers are using different tariff headings and exploiting loopholes in the system,’ it is contended. Elsewhere, the weather has been a key factor in early-2015 trading levels. In the Middle East, heavy snow in some parts served to ‘put some businesses on hold during the first week’ whereas, contrastingly, lack of snow and warm weather have helped ensure the trading of relatively good volumes of non-ferrous scrap in Denmark and southern Sweden.
For metal merchants in Australia and New Zealand, consumers are buying but, as normal, volumes have been low in the first month of the year. Very few loads of scrap have changed hands in Italy following the holiday break while the scrap trade in France too has been ‘waking up very slowly from the holiday season’, with business attracting ‘minimal margins’. For aluminium and copper scrap, demand is proving persistent for very high grade material – but at ‘increasing discounts and decreasing margins’ – whereas trading among the lower grades is deemed ‘scarce’.
In Germany, meanwhile, the markets are characterised by ‘weak prices, large-scale availability and fragile demand’. Notwithstanding LME fluctuations, ruble prices are rising as the currency in Russia continues to devalue. The country’s winter has brought the traditional ‘fight for scrap in terms of prices, payments and availability’.
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HISTORY of Billets

HISTORY of Billets

Originally, a “billet” (from the French) was a note, commonly used in the 18th and early 19th centuries as a “billet of invitation.” A particular use of the word in this sense is to denote an order issued to a soldier entitling him to quarters with a certain person. From this meaning, the word billet came to be loosely used of the quarters thus obtained.Repeated petitions against the practice of billeting, starting in the 16th century, culminated in its outlawing in 1689 as an extension of a section of the Petition of Right 1628.
During wartime, civilians who have been evacuated from a city in danger of attack are billetted in communal shelters or in the homes of individuals. The practice of billettingevacuees was widespread in Britain during World War II, particularly during the Blitz, when children and other non-essential persons in major cities were sent to rural areas for safety.
In European countries since the formation of regular forces the Quartermaster was an occupation and a rank of the individuals responsible for provision of sleeping quarters as well as other provisions for regular time troops.

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Iron and Steel Expoters

Sector: iron & Steel
India is on way to become a leading exporter of Semi-Finished products such as ingots, slabs, billets. During 2012-13, there was over 90% export growth in value.

In 2013, India was on 10th position in the list of top exporters of semi-finished steel and export growth during 2009-13 was 14% in quantity.
India holds 9th position in exports of flat rolled products such as HR & CR Coils, Sheets and plates in 2013 and it is growing annually at over 40% in quantity.
India’s ranking in the global list for production of steel is going to increase due to increasing demand from domestic infrastructure projects and would also boost exports in down stream products.
Online buyers and sellers of iron and steels

Iron Ore

Steel industry might have seen some roller coaster ride but as estimates mentioned, it’s only going to grown with India in the coming decades, so will the demand for the basic raw material Iron Ore.